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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstanen arrakasta ekonomikoa: eraldaketa eta hazkundearen bidaia

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Kazakhstan, the largest landlocked country in the world and a key player in Central Asia, has made remarkable strides in its economic development over the past three decades. From the early years of independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union to its current status as an emerging market, Kazakhstan’s economic success story is characterized by strategic reforms, diversification efforts, and a commitment to sustainable growth. This article explores the key factors behind Kazakhstan’s economic achievements and the ongoing efforts to ensure its future prosperity.

Testuinguru historikoa eta hasierako erronkak

1991n independentzia lortu ondoren, Kazakhstanek erronka ekonomiko handiak egin zizkion aurre. Zentralean planifikatutako ekonomia batetik merkatuan oinarritutako sistema batera igarotzeak zailtasunez beteta egon zen, besteak beste, inflazioa, langabezia eta erakunde ekonomiko berriak ezartzeko beharra. Hala ere, herrialdeak azkar ekin zion ekonomia egonkortzeko eta epe luzerako hazkunderako oinarriak ezartzeko hainbat erreformari.

Erreforma Estrategikoak eta Merkatuaren Liberalizazioa

Bere lehen presidente Nursultan Nazarbayev-en gidaritzapean, Kazakhstanek erreforma ekonomikoen programa integral bat ezarri zuen. Horien artean, estatuko enpresen pribatizazioa, merkataritzaren liberalizazioa eta enpresa-jardueretarako lagungarri den lege-esparrua ezartzea zeuden. Gobernuak atzerriko zuzeneko inbertsioa (FDI) erakartzera ere bideratu zuen ekonomiaren hainbat sektore sustatzeko.

One of the most significant early successes was the attraction of substantial FDI into the country’s oil and gas sector. Kazakhstan, with its vast reserves of hydrocarbons, became a major player in the global energy market. Partnerships with international oil companies facilitated the development of key oil fields such as Tengiz and Kashagan, driving economic growth and generating significant revenues.

Dibertsifikazio Ekonomikoa eta Industria Politika

Petrolioaren eta gasaren esportazioekiko gehiegizko konfiantzarekin lotutako arriskuak aintzat hartuta, Kazakhstanek ahaleginak egin ditu bere ekonomia dibertsifikatzeko. Gobernuak hainbat ekimen abiarazi ditu erauzketa ez diren industriak garatzeko eta baliabide naturalen mendekotasuna murrizteko.

Petrolioa ez diren sektoreen garapena

Kazakhstan’s “Nurly Zhol” (Bright Path) economic policy, introduced in 2014, focuses on infrastructure development, industrialization, and enhancing connectivity. This program has led to significant investments in transportation, logistics, and infrastructure projects, improving domestic and regional connectivity and fostering economic integration.

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The “Kazakhstan 2050 Strategy” outlines long-term goals for economic diversification and modernization. Key areas of focus include agriculture, manufacturing, and digital technologies. Efforts to develop the agricultural sector have led to increased productivity and exports, making Kazakhstan a key player in the global grain market. Meanwhile, the promotion of manufacturing and industrial clusters has spurred growth in industries such as machinery, chemicals, and metallurgy.

 Eraldaketa Digital

The “Digital Kazakhstan” initiative, launched in 2017, aims to drive the country’s digital transformation and foster a knowledge-based economy. The program focuses on improving digital infrastructure, fostering innovation, and enhancing digital literacy. As a result, Kazakhstan has seen significant growth in its tech sector, with the emergence of startups and increased adoption of digital technologies across various industries.

Finantza-sektorearen erreformak eta inbertsio-giroa

Kazakhstanek erreforma garrantzitsuak egin ditu bere finantza-sektorea indartzeko eta inbertsio-giro orokorra hobetzeko. 2018an Astanako Nazioarteko Finantza Zentroa (AIFC) ezartzeak mugarri garrantzitsua izan zuen zentzu horretan. AIFCk, ingeleseko zuzenbide arruntean oinarritutako bere sistema juridikoarekin, mundu mailako inbertitzaileak erakartzea eta Kazakhstan eskualdeko finantza gune gisa kokatzea du helburu.

Gardentasuna hobetzeko, erregulazio-prozesuak arintzeko eta ustelkeriaren aurka borrokatzeko ahaleginek negozio-giro onagoa lortzen lagundu dute. Erreforma hauek inbertitzaileen konfiantza indartu dute eta petrolioa eta gasa haratagoko hainbat sektoretan FDI areagotzea ekarri dute.

Garapen Iraunkorra eta Ekonomia Berdea

Kazakhstan has also been proactive in addressing environmental challenges and promoting sustainable development. The country has set ambitious targets for renewable energy development, aiming to increase the share of renewables in its energy mix. Investments in wind, solar, and hydroelectric projects are part of Kazakhstan’s strategy to reduce its carbon footprint and transition to a greener economy.

In 2013, Kazakhstan launched the Green Economy Concept, which outlines a comprehensive approach to sustainable development. This initiative encompasses measures to improve resource efficiency, promote clean technologies, and enhance environmental protection. Kazakhstan’s commitment to sustainability is further exemplified by its active participation in international climate agreements and initiatives.

Kazakhstan’s economic success is a testament to its strategic vision, robust reforms, and commitment to diversification and sustainability. From overcoming the challenges of post-Soviet transition to becoming a dynamic and emerging market, Kazakhstan has made impressive strides in its economic development. As the country continues to navigate the complexities of the global economy, its focus on modernization, innovation, and sustainable growth will be crucial in ensuring long-term prosperity and resilience.

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